characteristics of synovial joints
Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket are all types of synovial joints. Synovial tendon sheaths line tendons only where they pass through narrow passages or retinacula, as in the palm, at the wrist, and around the ankle. Risk factors that may lead to osteoarthritis later in life include injury to a joint; jobs that involve physical labor; sports with running, twisting, or throwing actions; and being overweight.

This movement of the first carpometacarpal joint is what gives humans their distinctive “opposable” thumbs. This results in the decreased effectiveness of articular cartilage as a shock absorber and lubricated surface, as well as the roughened edges causing further damage. (credit: modification of work by Brian C. Goss). Saddle joints are so named because the ends of each bone resemble a saddle, with concave and convex portions that fit together. It is the most common type of joint found in the human body, and contains several structures which are not seen in fibrous or cartilaginous joints. The shallow socket formed by the glenoid cavity allows the shoulder joint an extensive range of motion. [online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_systems. Condyloid joints occur where an egg-shaped surface of a bone fits into a concave space in another bone, allowing flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements ( circumduction ). However, unlike at a cartilaginous joint, the articular cartilages of each bone are not continuous with each other. Based only on their shape, plane joints can allow multiple movements, including rotation and can be functionally classified as a multiaxial joint.

Fig 1 – The basic structures of a synovial joint. *The formation of fibrocartilaginous callus: The presence of the new capillaries in the fracture hematoma helps organize it into a growing connective tissue called procallus. Once you've finished editing, click 'Submit for Review', and your changes will be reviewed by our team before publishing on the site. It can be found in the skin, attached to the hair follicles. This fluid-filled space is the site at which the articulating surfaces of the bones contact each other. Ligaments hold the bones together and also serve to resist or prevent excessive or abnormal movements of the joint. Some synovial joints also have a fat pad, which can serve as a cushion between the bones. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows for free movement. A subtendinous bursa is found between a tendon and a bone. Since the rotation is around a single axis, pivot joints are functionally classified as a uniaxial diarthrosis type of joint. Subcutaneous bursae prevent friction between the skin and an underlying bone, submuscular bursae protect muscles from rubbing against a bone or another muscle, and a subtendinous bursa prevents friction between bone and a muscle tendon. Free resources to assist you with your nursing studies! A diet with excessive fructose has been implicated in raising the chances of a susceptible individual developing gout. However, over the past two decades, research has also characterized the elastic properties of tendons and their ability to function as springs. After the bone formationis completed, the mature bone is encased in a membrane of connective tissue called the, Growth takes place at the epiphyseal growth plate of long bones by a finely balanced, cycle of cartilage growth, matrix formation and calcification of cartilage that acts as a, scaffold for bone formation. Synovial joints are strengthened by the presence of ligaments, which hold the bones together and resist excessive or abnormal movements of the joint. Various chemicals in the stomach interact to break down the food like the digestive enzymes pepsin, rennin, and lipase. In response to the dead bone cells, swelling and inflammation occur, producing additional cellular debris. Chapter 1. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - NursingAnswers.net is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Synovial joints vary in structure—for example, the shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint and the knee is a hinge joint—but they all have the following in common: Synovial joints allow for movement. Each person is different so they may vary from person to person, and they do not always ossify and they typically only measure a few millimetres in diameter. This sequence of cellular events constitutes endochondral, ossification. The mouth is the point of entry of the food into the GI tract and the site where digestion begins as food is broken down and moistened in preparation for further transit through the GI tract. Long bones include those in the thigh (femur), leg (tibia and fibula), arm (humerus)…. [online] http://library.thinkquest.org/3007/skeletal.html. The calcium and phosphorus that is needed to strengthen and harden new bone is deposited only gradually and bone cells generally grow and reproduce slowly. the rate at which blood flows through the tissues can determine the rate at which lactic acid leaves the muscle and enters the blood stream.

Bursitis is the inflammation of a bursa near a joint. These factors put stress on the articular cartilage that covers the surfaces of bones at synovial joints, causing the cartilage to gradually become thinner. These fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that help connect the broken ends of the bone, meanwhile the phagocytes continue to remove the cellular debris.

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